Indonesia is the thirth most biologically diverse country in the world,after brazil and zaire. Borneo is a world megabiodiversity hotspot, coming second after amazone.Indonesia cover 1.3% of the the world land area but its first contain 10% of the world plants,12% of mammalia,17% of reptile and amphibian 17% of bird species.Tanjung Puting National Park is one of the richest park in indonesia,with may rare and endangered species.
Tanjung puting national park is located in central kalimantan indonesia. It is one of conservation area in indonesia and the first orangutan rehabilitation site in Kalimantan.Where you can see the orangutan;one of the species of the great apes in the world and it has more than 600 type of tree,200 varities of orchid,almost 230 species of bird 38 species of mammal,9 species of primate and still many other life forms share and living together in their natural habitat. With an area 415.040 hectare Tanjung puting national park has some small river systems and has several ecosystem types ,namely lowland tropical forest,dry land forest,freshwater swamp forest,peat swamp forest,mangroves forest,coastal forests and secondary forests.these appear to have been important in determining the distribution of some fish and other species by acting as natural barries to their spread.And tanjung puting national park has been designated as a nature as well as flora and fauna conservation center,especially for bornean orangutan. As a conservation area for unique flora and fauna and their ecosystem,tanjung puting national park possesses various points of interest for tourist to see and now,is continued to be developed as a dynamic tourism spot and as the main ecotourism destination for borneo.
The main species of flora in the northern region are kerangas forest and insect eating planta such as kantong semar( Nephentes sp). True peat swamp forest are found in the central part of the area and near the bank of some rivers, and there are plants wwith knee roots and air roots.
All along the bank of all rivers in this are there is true fresh water swamp forest (alluvial, with a complex of species of wooded creeping plants of large and small sizes, epiphyte and creeping ferns in large amount.
In the northern region towards the south of the area there is a plain with species of wide shrubs, resulting from damaged kerangas forest due to cutting and burning. These are generally found within pockets all along the Sekonyer River and the streams. The plant in the upper reaches of the main river comprise of grassy swamp dominated by pandanus sp and spread macrophyte (wild lily) floating, such as Crinum sp at coastal areas including mangrove forest. Further into the dry land in the the brackish area at the estuaries along the river, and indicate the content of brackish water’s intrusion into the dry land. The coastal areas on the beaches have sand with lots of plants of the genera of Casuarina, Pandanus,Podocarpus, Scaevola, and barringtonia.
Other species of plant to be found in the Tanjung Puting National Park are meranti (Shorea sp), ramin (Gonystylus Bancanus, jelutung (Dyera costulata), eaglewood, lanan wood, keruing( Dipterocarpus sp), ulin (Eusyderoxylon zwagery), tengkawang(Dracomentelas sp0, Dacrydium, Lithocarpus, Castonopsis, Schiima, Hapea, Melaleuca, Dyospyros, Beckia,Jackia, Licuala, Vatica, Palaquium,Astonia, Nipa palm, Crinatum,Pandanus etc. Plants at the lower forest layer comprise the species of rattan and tree rejuvenation/young plants.
Tanjung Puting National Park is occupied by around 38 species of mammal. Seven of these include familiar and protected primates such us orangutan (pongo pygmaues), proboscis monkey(nasalis larvatus), gibbon(hylobates agillis) and honey bear(helarctos malayanus) large species of mammal such as barking deer (munaniacus muntjak), mouse deer(tragulus javanicus) and wild boar(sus barbatus) can be ound in this area. Even some species of water mammal such as dugong(dugong dugong) and dolphin have been reported from the waters around tanjung puting national park area.
- Tanjung Puting is located between 2°35 to 3°26 long. south and 111°50– to 112°15– lat.East
- The park is drained by a number of small ‘blackwater’ rivers which are fairly acidic and tidal
- Soils are infertile,with a pH range of 3.8 − 7.0
- Peat formation to 3 meters thickness is widespread
- Topography is flat with heights of 0−30 meters a.s.l
- Average temperature 16 −35°C (65−95° F)
- Average rainfall 2000−3000 mm/year
- Humidity 80−100%
- Rainy season from October−April
- Dry season from May−September